Tuesday, December 27, 2011

[Herpetology • 2008] Rhacophorus belalongensis • A new treefrog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Brunei Darussalam (Borneo)

Fig 1. Female paratype of Rhacophorus belalongensis sp. n. (UBd GK06-26) in life.

A new species of Rhacophorus from the Sultanate of Brunei darussalam (Borneo) is described. Rhacophorus belalongensis sp. n. is similar to Rhacophorus bimaculatus, R. catamitus, R. gadingensis, and R. gauni, but can be distinguished from these species and all other Southeast Asian members of the genus by the combination of the following characters: small size (SVl of adult females and males 34.7-38.2 mm and 25.8-30.9 mm, respectively), snout obtuse, head wider than long and wider than body, row of small white tubercles but no dermal lap along forearm, pointed calcar present on heel, supratympanic fold weakly expressed or absent, tympanum diameter one-third of that of eye, canthus rostralis sharp, interorbital distance equals upper eyelid width and internarial distance, dorsum grey to light brown in life, more or less regularly speckled with small dark brown irregularly shaped spots, lanks and anterior surface of thighs with irregularly shaped sky blue blotches on lanks, iris ruby-coloured, difusing to yellow laterally with distinct black ring along margin. Furthermore, characteristics of the advertisement call and natural history notes are provided.

Key words: Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae, Rhacophorus belalongensis sp. n., taxonomy, natural history, advertisement call, Brunei darussalam, Borneo.

Rhacophorus belalongensis sp. n. (Figs. 1-7)
Holotype: ZMB 70377, adult female, from Sungai Anak Esu, a tributary of Sungai Belalong (4°32’34’’N, 115° 09’33’’E, ca. 60-200 m elevation), near Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, Temburong district, Brunei darussalam (Borneo), collected by T.U. Grafe and A. Keller, 10 July 2006.

The new species is known only from several small tributaries of both Sungai Belalong and Sungai Temburong in the area of the conluence of the two rivers.

Etymology: The new species is named after the Sungai Belalong valley, where it was discovered.

Fig. 3. Female paratype of Rhacophorus belalongensis sp. n. (UBd GK06-25) perching on a newly built foam nest.

Belalong tree frog | Rhacophorus belalongensis

As a result of the Heart of Borneo declaration, 58 percent of Brunei Darussalam’s national territory will fall under some level of environmental protection, good news for new species such as the Belalong tree frog, Rhacophorus belalongensis, discovered in 2008. This species was discovered in the Sungai Belalong basin in the Temburong district, hence its name, and it is miniature: males barely measure more than 3cm and females usually less than 3.8cm species. The species was encountered in the rainforests of Brunei, where it was found on vegetation next to small, fast-flowing creeks at heights between one and three metres above the ground. Scientists also heard the frog calling from the very tops of trees up to 10m high.

Fig. 8. Sound spectrogram of two-click advertisement call given
by a male Rhacophorus belalongensis at 25.2 °C.

Dehling, J. M. & T. U. Grafe. 2008. A new treefrog of the genus Rhacophorus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Brunei Darussalam (Borneo). Salamandra, 44(2): 101-112.

[Herpetology • 2008] Rhacophorus penanorum • A new treefrog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Gunung Mulu, eastern Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo

Fig. 1. Holotype of Rhacophorus penanorum sp.
n. (ZMB 70718) in life. Photograph taken in the

A new treefrog of the genus Rhacophorus is described from a small montane stream on the southern slope of Gunung Mulu in eastern Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The new species is distinguishable from its Southeast Asian congeners by the combination of the following characters: small size; snout sharply pointed, forming a low swollen rostral tubercle at its anteriormost tip; supratympanic fold thick and conspicuous; tympanum diameter one-third of that of eye; canthus rostralis sharp; interorbital distance greater than upper eyelid width and internarial distance; vomerine teeth in two oblique series; dermal appendages on trunk and limbs absent; hands and feet not fully webbed; dorsum uniformly yellowish-green in life; iris ruby-coloured in life with a light grey margin; advertisement call consisting of three or four notes, with energy maximum at 4050-4380 Hz.

Key words: Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae, Rhacophorus penanorum sp. n., taxonomy, natural history, advertisement call, Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia, Borneo.

Rhacophorus penanorum sp. n. (Figs. 1-7)
Holotype: ZMB 70718, adult male, from a small stream, 45 minutes by foot below camp four on the southern flank of Gunung Mulu, approx. 1650 m elev., Gunung Mulu National
Park, Miri Division, Sarawak, Malaysia, collected by J. M. Dehling, 4 January 2008.

Distribution and ecological notes: The new species is known only from the type locality, a small permanent headstream of Sungai Tapin on the southern flank of Gunung Mulu (approx. 1650 m elev.), 45 minutes by foot below camp four. he streambed consists of rock in steep, fast-flowing sections and gravel in sections where the current is slower and the stream forms small, shallow pools. he site is also described in Dring (1983a, 1983b). All specimens were found calling fromleaves overhanging the stream at heights between 1.5 and 2 m. he following species were found sympatric with the new species: Ansonia hanitschi Inger, 1960, A. torrentis Dring, 1983, Leptobrachella brevicrus Dring, 1983, Xenophrys dringi (Inger, Stuebing & Tan, 1995), Limnonectes kuhlii (Tschudi, 1838) - complex, Meristogenys kinabaluensis (Inger, 1966), Staurois natator (Günther, 1858), and Philautus mjobergi Smith, 1925. Dring (1983b) reported Leptolalax sp. (= L. dringi Dubois, 1987) from the site.

Etymology: he species epithet is a patronym honouring the Penan people who live in the Gunung Mulu area. he type locality of the new species is situated on one of their traditional hunting trails.

Fig. 4. Type series of Rhacophorus penanorum sp.
n. (top to bottom: ZMB 70719, 70718, 70720),
showing the variation in daytime-colouration.

Dehling, J.M. 2008. A new treefrog (Anura: Rhacophoridae: Rhacophorus) from Gunung Mulu, Borneo. Salamandra. 44(4): 193-205.:

Monday, December 26, 2011

[Herpetology • 2005] Rhacophorus gadingensis • A new species of Rhacophorus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Gunung Gading, Sarawak, Borneo

A new species of rhacophorid of the genus Rhacophorus is described from Gunung Gading National Park, Sarawak, western Borneo. Rhacophorus gadingensis, new species, is compared with congeners from Borneo and other parts of southeast Asia. The new species is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL 29.5 mm in the larger of the two specimens known; snout obtuse, slightly projecting beyond mandible; head wider than long; fingers and toes webbed; lacking nuptial pads (in males) and a dermal flap along forearm; a weak supracloacal fold; spinose calcar present; skin not co-ossified to forehead, median lingual process absent; supratympanic fold weak; dorsum brown, with a dark interorbital bar; dark brown blotches on dorsum and flanks with blue blotches.

KEY WORDS. – Rhacophorus, new species, Rhacophorus gadingensis, Rhacophoridae, systematics, Borneo.

Etymology. – The new species is named for Gunung Gading, the type locality of the new species.

Ecological notes. – The holotype and paratype were found on vegetation, ca. 3 m and 1 m, respectively, overhanging granite boulders at the edge of a torrential forest stream, > 8 m in width. They were collected ca. 0200-0230 h. The call and larval stages of the new species remain unknown.
The following species of frogs were found sympatric with the new species: Chaperina fusca, Limnonectes laticeps, L. leporinus, L. kuhlii, Meristogenys poecilus, Rana hosii, R. picturata, R. raniceps, Staurois guttatus, Nyctixalus pictus, Philautus tectus, Polypedates colletti, Rhacophorus appendiculatus, R. pardalis, Rhacophorus kajau, Leptolalax hamidi, Megophrys nasuta and Ansonia spinulifer.

Das, I. and Haas, A. 2005. A new species of Rhacophorus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Gunung Gading, Sarawak. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 53(2): 101-107.

[Herpetology • 2005] Polypedates chlorophthalmus | Green-eyed Tree Frog • A new species from Gunung Murud, Sarawak (Northwestern Borneo)

A new species of rhacophorid of the genus Polypedates is described from Gunung Murud, Sarawak State, north-western Borneo. Polypedates chlorophthalmus, new species is compared with congeners from Borneo and other parts of southeast Asia. The new species is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL 62.1 mm in the unique holotype; snout rounded, not projecting beyond mandible; head slightly wider than long; canthus rostralis sloping; no dermal flap along forearm; supracloacal fold absent; skin not co-ossified to cranial bones, median lingual process absent; supratympanic fold distinct; dorsum brown, with a thin dark gray line at back of forehead, nearly converging at the axilla, lacking dark lines; lower flanks and anterior edge of thighs with dark blotches; throat with dark pigmentation; and iris bright green.

KEY WORDS. – Polypedates, new species, Polypedates chlorophthalmus, Rhacophoridae, systematics, new species, Borneo.

Etymology. – The new species is named for its remarkable green iris, from the Greek for green-eyed.

Ecological notes. – The holotype was found on vegetation, ca. 0.8 m above a granite boulder at the edge of a forest stream. It was a gravid female, containing large and small unpigmented ova, assumed to represent multiple clutches. The males, call and larval stages of the new species remain unknown. The following species of anuran amphibians were found sympatric with the new species : Ansonia sp., Meristogenys whiteheadi and Rhacophorus angulirostris. Because of the relative inaccessibility of the site, follow-up visits to collect additional specimens have not been possible.

Das, I. 2005. A new Species of Polypedates (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Gunung Murud, Sarawak (Northwestern Borneo). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 53.2: 265-270.: http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/53/53rbz265-270.pdf http://www.aseanbiodiversity.info/Abstract/53005441.pdf

[Herpetology • 2010] Note on a Collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra, Indonesia

Amphibians and reptiles were collected in Sumatra during two short field trips, around Lake Maninjau in Sumatera Barat Province (West Sumatra Province) and in Jambi Province. On the basis of preserved specimens and / or photographed specimens, the collection includes 17 species of amphibians (1 Caecilia, 16 Anura) and 38 species of reptiles (11 lizard and 27 snake species respectively). A new species of the genus Bufo is described from a single specimen on the basis of a combination of unique characters distinguishing it from Bufo sumatranus Peters, 1871, a similar species also known only from its holotype. Other noteworthy specimens are described in details. Given the poor knowledge of the herpetology of Sumatra, this collection, although limited in size, is important and 3 amphibian and 10 reptile species represent new provincial records. Of special interest is the discovery in West Sumatra Province of Lygosoma quadrupes, previously only known from Sumatera Selatan Province. A preliminary biogeographical hypothesis of the herpetofauna of Sumatra is provided.

Key words: Indonesia, Sumatra, Amphibians, Reptiles, Bufo totol spec. nov., Taxonomy

Teynié, A., David, P. and Ohler, A. 2010. Note on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa, 2416: 1–43.: http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/20809606/2077694276/name/Bufo_totol_Teynie-et-al-Sumatra%5B1%5D.pdf

[Herpetology • 2011] Rhacophorus pseudacutirostris | Sumatran Sharp-nosed Tree Frog • new species from Sumatera Barat (Western Sumatra)

Sumatran Sharp-nosed Tree Frog
Rhacophorus pseudacutirostris, Dehling 2011

The taxonomic status of the population of Rhacophorus angulirostris from West Sumatra is reassessed. This record was based on five specimens that had been collected in Padang, West Sumatra, more than a century ago, are stored in the collection of the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria, and were assigned to R. angulirostris from Borneo by Inger (1966). Reexamination revealed that the specimens from Sumatra share only few diagnostic characters with R. angulirostris from Borneo. Bornean and Sumatran specimens difer in the presence of a dermal projection at the tibio-tarsal articulation, male body size, snout shape, shape of the canthus rostralis and the supratympanic fold, extent of webbing between the ingers, size of the thenar tubercle, position of the nostrils, internarial distance, the eye-to-nostril distance, size of eye and tympanum, and size and position of the dentigerous processes of the vomers. he specimens from Padang were compared to all other Southeast Asian members of the genus and found to represent a distinct species, herein described as new, that appears to be not even closely related to R. angulirostris. Because the only record of R. angulirostris from Sumatra was based on these specimens, the geographic distribution of R. angulirostris is again restricted to northeastern Borneo. An identification key for the Rhacophorus species from Sumatra is provided.

Key words: Amphibia, Rhacophorus pseudacutirostris sp. n., identification key, Indonesia, Borneo, endemism.

Rhacophorus pseudacutirostris sp. n.
(Figs. 1–3)
Rhacophorus acutirostris (nec Rhacophorus acutirostris Mocquard, 1890, archeonym replaced by Rhacophorus angulirostris Ahl, 1927): Inger (1966, partim).
Rhacophorus angulirostris (nec Rhacophorus angulirostris Ahl, 1927): Manthey & Grossmann (1997, partim); Harvey et al. (2002, partim); Malkmus et al. (2002, partim); Dehling (2008, partim); Teynié et al. (2010, partim).

Holotype: NHW 16301:5, adult male, from Padang, Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Indonesia, collected between 1890 and 1904 by Consul Johannes Schild.

Paratypes: NHW 16301:1, NHW 16301:3, two adult females, NHW16301:2, 16301:4, two adult males, same data as holotype.

Etymology: the species epithet is composed of pseud­, the Latinized form of the Greek preix ψευδ­, meaning “false”, and the Latin words acutus, meaning “sharpened”, and ros­trum, meaning “snout”; in allusion to the former confusion of the new species with Rhacophorus acutirostris Mocquard, 1890 (name replaced with R. angulirostris Ahl, 1927) from Borneo. As common name, I suggest Sumatran Sharp-nosed Tree Frog.

— Key to the Sumatran species of Rhacophorus —

Dehling, J.M. 2011 Taxonomic status of the population of Rhacophorus angulirostris Ahl, 1927 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Sumatera Barat (Western Sumatra) and its description as a new species. Salamandra, 47(3): 133-143. http://salamandra-journal.com/index.php?option=com_docman&Itemid=72

[Herpetology • 2002] Rhacophorus achantharrhena, R. barisani & R. catamitus • 3 New parachuting frogs Rhacophorus from Sumatra

Rhacophorus achantharrhena sp. nov.
Fig. 1
Holotype.— An adult male, UTACV 53961 (collector’s tag M. B. Harvey 5390), collected 31 May 1996 by Michael B. Harvey and Eric N. Smith on the western slope of Bukit Kaba, Bengkulu, Sumatra, Indonesia, 03 30 02 S, 102 38 08 E, 1415 m (Fig. 2).

Etymology.— The name of the new species is a masculine noun in apposition derived from the Greek nouns akantha meaning thorn or prickle and arrhen meaning male. Males of the new species are covered in tiny spicules, and the new name alludes to this sexually dimorphic character.

Natural history.—At the type locality, calling males were found between 2100– 2200 hrs on low vegetation along a rocky stream through secondary growth. The stream lacked current; its water was clear, shallow, and restricted to pools separated by dry patches of streambed. At 2100 hrs, the temperature was 19 C. When a full moon appeared overhead, males stopped calling.
At Gunung Dempo, the single male specimen was found at 2115 hrs. (air temperature 18 C) calling from low vegetation above a pool of still water separate from, though adjacent to a large, fast flowing stream. This specimen was found where a road through a tea plantation crosses the stream. The nearest forest was about 1 km higher up the mountain where the stream originated.
The lower abdomen of the single female is filled with greatly distended ovaries containing seemingly mature eggs (visible through the skin of the flanks). The yolks are pale yellow. To avoid damaging the specimen, we made no attempt to count the eggs; however, the largest eggs protruding through a small gash on the specimens flank were 1.3 mm in diameter.

FIG. 4.— Head shape of four species of Rhacophorus:
A. Rhacophorus barisani, holotype, UTACV 53971; B. Rhacophorus margaritifer, UTACV 54009;
C. Rhacophorus catamitus, holotype, UTACV 53981. D. Rhacophorus achantharrhena, holotype, UTACV 53961. Each specimen is a male.

We report on a small collection of parachuting frogs from Sumatra and Java. Three new species are described. Rhacophorus achantharrhena is similar to R. dulitensis and R. prominanus and differs from these species by a suite of characters including morphology of the supratympanic fold, digital webbing, coloration, and morphometrics. These three species are unusual in having white visceral and parietal peritonea. Rhacophorus catamitus is a small species similar to R. angulirostris and differing from this species by having a calcar at the heel and reduced digital webbing. Rhacophorus barisani resembles R. baluensis but differs from this species in color pattern, habitus, webbing of the fingers, and morphology of the dermal appendages. A new specimen of Sumatran R. pardalis is described and compared to the holotype of R. pulchellus. Rhacophorus prominanus is reported from Gunung Rajabasa, Lampung. Two specimens are described and compared to Bornean R. dulitensis and R. prominanus from the Malay Peninsula. Rhacophorus tunkui Kiew is a junior subjective synonym of Rhacophorusprominanus Smith. Finally, we describe new specimens of Rhacophorus margaritifer from Cibodas, Java. Skeletons of the new species and of R. margaritifer are described in detail. Superficial jaw and throat musculature appears to be relatively conservative within the genus.

Key words: Rhacophorus achantharrhena new species; Rhacophorus catamitus new species; Rhacophorus barisani new species; Rhacophorus prominanus; Rhacophorus pardalis; Rhacophorus margaritifer; Osteology; Sumatra

FIG. 2.— Distributions of six species of parachuting frogs in Western Indonesia.

Rhacophorus barisani sp. nov.
(Fig. 7)
Holotype.— An adult male, UTACV 53971 (collector’s tag M. B. Harvey 5396), collected 31 May 1996 by Michael B. Harvey and Eric N. Smith on the western slope of Bukit Kaba, Bengkulu, Sumatra, Indonesia, 03 30’ 02’’ S, 102 38’ 08’’ E, 1440 m.

Etymology.—The new name barisani is a masculine noun in apposition and refers to the Bukit Barisan Range. Occurring at high elevations in primary rainforest, the new species is likely endemic to this mountain range.

Natural history.—The type series was found along a stream trickling through tall, upper montane rainforest. Where the stream flattened out, none of these frogs were found. Rather, they were found calling from vegetation 1.3–2.0 m above deep pools where the stream flowed down a steep, basaltic slope. Foam nests were found floating on the water’s surface. The notes of the laugh-like call are short in duration and repeated numerous times in quick succession.

Rhacophorus cf. catamitus

Rhacophorus catamitus sp. nov.
(Fig. 11)
Holotype.—An adult male, UTACV 53981 (collector’s tag M. B. Harvey 5444), collected 3 June 1996 by Michael B. Harvey and Eric N. Smith on the southeastern slope of Gunung Dempo, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatra, Indonesia, 04 03’ 05’’ S, 103 , 08’, 40’’ E, 1695–1630 m.

Etymology.— The specific epithet catamitus is a noun in apposition derived from the Latin name for the cup bearer of the gods in Greco-Roman mythology. Catamitus was a boy kept forever young by Jupiter. Although male Rhacophorus are usually smaller than females of the same species, the difference in size is rarely as dramatic as in R. catamitus. In addition, males of this species have much smaller nuptial pads and testes than congeners examined by us; the Wolffian ducts are only weakly convoluted.

Natural history.— Rhacophorus catamitus occurs in forest of the Bukit Barisan range. All but the female specimen were collected between 1040 and 1695 m. At the type locality and at Bukit Kaba, males called from low vegetation near streams.
The single female was inactive atop a leaf about 2 m above a small stream through forest between 600–650 m.

Harvey, M.B.; Pemberton, A.J. & Smith, E.N. 2002. New and poorly known parachuting frogs (Rhacophoridae: Rhacophorus) from Sumatra and Java. Herpetological Monographs. 16: 46-92.: DOI: 10.1655/0733-1347(2002)016%5B0046:NAPKPF%5D2.0.CO%3B2

[Herpetology • 2005] Xenophrys (Megophrys) parallela • new species (Anura: Megophryidae) from west Sumatra, Indonesia

Xenophrys (Megophrys) parallela (Inger & Iskandar, 2005)
synonym: Megophrys parallela Inger & Iskandar, 2005

Inger, R.F., Iskandar, D.T. 2005. A collection of Amphibians from West Sumatra, with a derscription of a new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura). The Raffles bulletin of zoology. 53: 133-14: http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/53/53rbz133-142.pdf

[Herpetology • 2009] Endotrophic tadpoles of the Saint Andrew’s Cross Toadlet | Pelophryne signata (Anura: Bufonidae) in Singapore

Saint Andrew’s Cross Toadlet | Pelophryne signata

Singapore is home to 24 species of native anurans, of which 18 species are largely confined to the remnant forests within the protected Central Nature Reserves. This includes the Saint Andrew’s Cross toadlet, Pelophryne signata (Boulenger, 1894), which has only been recorded from a single locality at the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR), in the heart of Singapore Island. The last confirmed sightings of the adults of this species were some 18 years ago (Lim, 1990), when two individuals were reported. Despite subsequent attempts to document the breeding behaviour and tadpoles of this particular species locally (Leong & Chou, 1999), no successful observations were obtained till recently. Another vernacular name for this diminutive species is the “lowland dwarf toad”, as referred to by Inger & Stuebing (2005). In Singapore, earlier references to this toadlet used the name “Pelophryne brevipes” instead (e.g., Lim & Lim, 1992; Teo & Rajathurai, 1997; Leong, 2004b). According to Frost (2008), Pelophryne signata was earlier synonymised under Pelophryne brevipes in 1966 by Robert F. Inger, but subsequently revalidated in 1985 by himself! The type locality of true Pelophryne brevipes (Peters, 1867) is actually Zamboanga, Mindanao (the Philippines) and its current recognised distribution is confined to the islands of Mindanao and Basilan. The geographic distribution for true Pelophryne signata includes Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, and the Natuna Islands (Indonesia).

Saint Andrew’s Cross Toadlet | Pelophryne signata

Leong, T.M. and Teo, S.C. 2009. Endotrophic tadpoles of the Saint Andrew’s Cross Toadlet, Pelophryne signata (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) in Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 21-25.: http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/nis/bulletin2009/2009nis21-25.pdf

[Herpetology • 2009] Pelophryne saravacensis | Sarawak Dwarf Toad • new Bufonid (Anura: Bufonidae) from Borneo

Pelophryne saravacensis (Sarawak Dwarf Toad)

Pelophryne saravacensis
Inger & Stuebing, 2009

Pelophryne saravacensis Inger & Stuebing, 2009
Type locality: "Sungai Segaham, Belaga District, Kapit Division, Sarawak (2°44′ N 113°55′ E)", Malaysia (Borneo).
Holotype: FMNH 223012.

Inger, R.F. & R.B. Stuebing. 2009: New species and new records of Bornean frogs (Amphibia: Anura). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Singapore, 57: 527-535.: http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/57/57rbz527-535.pdf

[Herpetology • 2008] Pelophryne murudensis & P. linanitensis | 2 new Flathead Toads Pelophryne • from Gunung Murud, Northwestern Borneo

Pelophryne murudensis

Pelophryne linanitensis

Das, I. 2008. Two new species of Pelophryne (Anura: Bufoidae) from Gunung Murud, Sarawak (Northwestern Borneo) The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 56(2): 435–443.: http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/56/56rbz435-443.pdf

[Herpetology • 2008] Odorrana zhaoi • A new species of cascade frog (Amphibia, Ranidae) from Tibet, China

A new cascade frog, superficially resembling Odorrana graminea, O. chloronota and O. livida in having green color dorsally and ventral circummarginal grooves around the discs of the fingers, has been found in Mêdog County of Tibet (Xizang Autonomous Region), China. The new species (Odorrana zhaoi) is characterized by a combination of the following main attributes: 1) a golden upper lip strip from tip of snout and along the upper jaws extending to insertion of arm; 2) tympanum circular, very distinct and depressed with rim, TD:ED 0.56 in male; 3) dorsolateral fold weak, dorsum smooth except granular in posterior part, venter smooth except for a granular region under the thighs; 4) limbs with transverse bands of distinct blotches to tips of digits; 5) Tips of all fingers expanded with ventral circummarginal grooves, about 1.5 to two times the width of phalanges in figures Ⅲ and Ⅳ; 6) inner metatarsal tubercle distinct and ovoid, no outer metatarsal tubercle; 7) feet fully webbed to disks; 8) male with velvety nuptial pad on thumb, paired external subgular pouches but no humeral glands, fine spinules in an ovoid cluster on throat and chest.

Key Words: Ranidae, Odorrana, new species, China.

Etymology: The specific epithet honors Dr . ZHAO Da-Yu , Present of Shenyang Normal University , for his strong support to the survey in Xizang.

Distribution and Ecology: Odorrana zhaoi is endemic to Yarang, Médog County, Tibet. It is typically found in small rocky streams (on rocks within the stream) and under small waterfalls. Specimens were collected from a small stream in an evergreen forest at about 767 m asl (Li et al. 2008).
Odorrana zhaoi is currently known only from Yarang , Mêdog County, Tibet (Xizang Autonomous Region). Two specimens were collected along small rocky stream in evergreen forest at about 767 m. This frog generally acts on rocks in small stream and under small falls . No information about the egg and tadpoles .

Li, P.-P., Lu, Y.-Y., and Rao, D.-Q. 2008. ''A new species of cascade frog (Amphibia, Ranidae) from Tibet, China.'' Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 33(3), 537-541. http://www.zootax.com.cn/viewmulu_en.aspx?qi_id=690&mid=18294

[Herpetology • 2008] Odorrana yentuensis • A new species of Cascade Frog (Anura: Ranidae) from Yen Tu Mountain Range, northeastern Vietnam

Yen Tu Cascade Frog
Odorrna yentuensis Tran, Orlov & Nguyen, 2008


Anew species of cascade frog of genus Odorrana is described from Northeast Vietnam, Yen Tu Mountain Range [Tam Kham, Thanh Son, Son Dong district, Bac Giang Province (Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve)]. This small species of the genus Odorrana is characterized by a combination of the following characters: SVL (mm): males 44.33 – 45.49, mean 44.87; females 59.33 – 61.94, mean 60.85; body relatively short; oblique ridges, reaching upper part of rounded choanas; ventral skin smooth; lacking ventral spinules and ventrolateral cluster near to the insertion of the forearm. Dorsal skin is slightly rough, and hind part of the dorsal surface below sacrum is very rough (shagreen) because of small sharp tubercles completely covering this area; dorsum of body is light brown with rare dark spots of irregular shape; ventral side of body light, yellowish white, without spots; dorsolateral fold is accompanied by black edging, interrupted backwards; fore- and hindlimbs from above brown with dark transversal bands, from below, yellowish without spots; webs of feet gray. Comparison with other species of Odorrana genus and data on natural history are provided.

Keywords: Anura, Ranidae, cascade frogs Odorrana, Huia, Amolops, a new species, Northeast Vietnam, Bac Giang Province.

Tran, Orlov & Nguyen, 2008. A new species of Cascade Frog of Odorrana Fei, Yi et Huang, 1990 genus (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) from Bac Giang Province (Yen Tu Mountain Range, northeast Vietnam). Russian Journal of Herpetology (Russian J. Herpt.). 15(3), 212-224.: http://www.folium.ru/rjh/index.php/rjh/article/view/161

Sunday, December 25, 2011

[Herpetology • 2006] กบชะง่อนผาภูหลวง | Odorrana aureola | Phu Luang Rock Frog • Cascade Frog from Northeastern Thailand

Odorrana aureola Stuart, Chuaynkern, Chan-ard & Inger, 2006

We describe three new species of frogs from eastern Thailand based on old and new material. These represent a species of Megophrys from Chantaburi and Sa Kaeo Provinces, a species of Odorrana from Loei Province, and a species of Fejervarya from Ubon Ratchatani Province. Tadpoles are assigned to the new species of Megophrys and Fejervarya and to a recently described species of Rhacophorus from eastern Thailand using molecular identification.

ETYMOLOGY— The specific epithet aureola taken from aureolus (L.) for ornamented with gold, in reference to the diagnostic yellow markings on the limbs and flanks of this species.

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY— Odorrana aureola is currently known only from Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary and Phu Kradueng National Park (Fig. 1) in Loei Province, Thailand. The Phu Luang specimens were collected at night (1915–2030 h) on boulders, rock outcrops and a fallen tree within 4 m of swift, 1–8-m-wide rocky streams near cascades, except FMNH 265922 was collected in the water at the edge of a 2-m-wide stream with slow current between two small dams. Odorrana aureola was collected in sympatry with an apparently undescribed species that morphologically resembles O. chloronota (e.g. FMNH 265931/THNHM 05126, FMNH 265932/THNHM 05127) but that is not the sister taxon of O. chloronota (Stuart et al., 2006).

Bangkok, Thailand, May 24, 2007 — A new species of color-changing frog found in northeastern Thailand sits motionless on the brown soil.
Named the Phu Luang Cliff frog after the national park where it lives, the amphibian, which can grow to 3.5 inches (8.9 centimeters) has a naturally green body that can turn brown.

Scientists have found the rare frog in mountain waterfalls and creeks between 3,280 to 4,291 feet (1,000 to 1,500 meters) above sea level, Tanya Chan-ard, curator of Bangkok's National Science Museum, told the Associated Press.

The frog was discovered a few years ago, although scientists have only recently began studying it, Tanya said. --- http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/05/photogalleries/wip-week30/photo4.html

แนะนำตัวอย่างอ้างอิง จากองค์การพิพิธภัณฑ์วิทยาศาสตร์แห่งชาติ
กบชะงอนผาภูหลวง (Odorrana aureola): http://tistr.or.th/tistr/code/tistrorg/ecological_note/en_200801.pdf

Stuart, B. L., Y. Chuayngern, T. Chan-ard and R.F. Inger. 2006. Three New Species of Frogs and a New Tadpole fromEastern Thailand. Fieldiana Zoology New Series. 111: 1-19.:

[Herpetology • 2005] กบชะง่อนผาเขาใหญ่ | Odorrana (Rana) indeprensa | Khao Yai Rock Frog • Cascade Frog from Northeastern Thailand

A new species of cascade ranid belonging to the Rana livida species complex is described from Nakhon Ratchasima and Nakhon Nayok Provinces, eastern Thailand. The new species is differentiated from other cascade ranids by the following combination of characters: males with snout-vent length 54.3–69.1 mm (mean 61.8 mm), females 92.8–101.0 mm (mean 96.9 mm); males with gular pouches; finger II shorter than I; all digit tips expanded, with circummarginal grooves; no outer metatarsal tubercle; smooth dorsal skin, dorsolateral folds weak or absent; legs banded; males with white spinules on dorsal and ventral surfaces; posterior portion of thigh creamy white with brown marbling in preservative; and eggs without pigment. New data are presented for two similar, recently described species in the complex that also bear white spinules, Rana banaorum and Rana morafkai.

Key words: Laos, Southeast Asia, Vietnam, Rana indeprensa, Rana livida, species complex

Figure 5: Rana indeprensa, new species from Khao Yai National Park, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand: (left) FMNH 183666, holotype, an adult male; (right) FMNH 183662, female paratype. Photographs by W. Ronald Heyer.

Photographs by M. Cota.

Etymology.— The specific name is derived from the Latin indeprensus, meaning unobserved or undiscovered, in reference to the hidden identity of this new species for over 35 years in a natural history collection.

Distribution and Ecology.— Currently, R. indeprensa is only known from Khao Yai National Park, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, and Sarika Waterfalls, Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand. Specimens were collected at night (1830–2003 h) in dry evergreen and gallery evergreen forest on rocks, vines, trees, and stream banks within 4.5 m of 3.5–18 m wide streams, except for FMNH 183657, which was taken on the forest floor away from water. Vertical position of specimens varied from ground level to ∼1.5 m height. Tadpoles are unknown.

Figure 1: Map of mainland Southeast Asia with collection localities for referable specimens. 1) Khao Yai National Park, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand, 2) Sarika Waterfalls, Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand, 3) Huong Son Forest Reserve, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam, 4) Xe Sap National Biodiversity Conservation Area, Xe Kong Province, Laos, 5) Dong Hua Sao National Biodiversity Conservation Area, Champasak Province, Laos, 6) Ngoc Linh Mountain, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam, 7) An Khe District, Gia Lai Province, Vietnam.

Bain, R.H. and Stuart, B.L. 2005. A new species of cascade frog (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Thailand, with new data on Rana banaorum and Rana morafkai. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 53: 3-16.: http://cbc.amnh.org/center/pubs/pdfs/5-BainandStuartNHBSS2006.pdf